Step 2 3 ⅔ cup self-rising flour + additional more for rolling dough, 2 ¼ teaspoons quick-rising active dry yeast, 1 teaspoon EACH: ground cinnamon AND allspice, 2 tablespoons EACH: sumac powder, lemon juice, AND chopped parsley. Turn the stove off and add the lemon juice and chopped parsley. These savory little meat pies are a takeoff on a recipe from my Lebanese mother-in-law (who is one of the very best cooks I know). Saturated Fat-Trans Fat-Cholesterol-Sodium-Total Carbohydrate. Transfer onto a baking sheet lined with parchment paper, brush with egg wash and bake in a preheated oven (200°C/ 400°F) for about 20-30 minutes, or until golden in colour. Dietary Fiber-Sugars-Protein. What is in a Beef Fatayer? Create a well in the middle, you’re going to add the oil and the eggs in the center. Fatayers can also be filled with meat (lamb fatayer is traditional. Meat pies – of all ethnic cuisines – are one of my very favorite foods. A friend of mine introduced me to a Lebanese fast food, called Lahem Bi Ajeen (or Lahm bi’ajeen), earlier this year. Today we are diving in to Middle Eastern food with the fatayer, a Lebanese meat pie. Grab 2 ends and bring them over the filling. The filling is most often made from lamb or beef that is mixed with tomatoes, onions, pine nuts, salt, pepper, and sometimes dried chili. Thanks for picking that up! Lebanese Sfeeha (Meat Pie) Lebanese sfeeha or sometime called lahm bi ajeen, which basically means lamb in dough, are amazing little meat pies that full of flavor and simply delicious. Our most trusted Lebanese Meat Pie With Cheese recipes. Required fields are marked *. Your email address will not be published. The dough is going to feel somewhat oily, don’t be tempted to add more flour than the 1 -2 teaspoons mentioned. Bake at 425 degrees for 12-15 minutes or until they start turning lightly I’m just hoping no one asks for the nutritional content on these – I for one do not want to face that reality! This recipe was a big hit with my family. These sfeehas also brought me some good memories, as they are very popular in Brazil (my home country)! i’ve made these twice now and have it saved on my pinterest boards. Heat up the grill to at least 550F (or turn on broiler and move the rack to the very top That’s totally not as fun to say though. To make this dairy free is there a substitute for the powdered milk? See more ideas about Lebanese meat pies, Cooking recipes, Recipes. (Sorry, Mom!) The fatayer, like most regional food has familial and regional differences but they all look and taste similar. Pure pleasure! Knead for about 5 minutes until smooth and pliable. Lebanese cheese fatayers are savory pastries found throughout the Middle East. Am I able to use regular milk rather than powdered or what can I use to substitute as I don’t have this ingredient on hand? By LauraG. Square-shaped small pies are filled with a combination of cheese and parsley then oven baked. A mouth-watering appetizer! Proof the yeast by dissolving it in ¼ cup of the warm water with the sugar and letting it activate for … Roll each ball into an oval shape (14x8 cm). Make the pies: On a slightly floured surface divide the dough into 32 pieces, forming each piece into a small ball. 0.00g. lebanese meat pies rest for at least 10 minutes while the oven is preheating. Looove the blue and pink Crate & Barrell bowls, by the way. They can be triangular in … Jul 12, 2014 - Sfiha, Lam Bi'ajeen or Sfeeha Lebanese meat pies are savory pastries that are filled with ground beef or lamb, onions, tomatoes, tahini, and much more. Condiments include cheese, lemon juice, … Heat the ghee (clarified butter) in a large skillet on medium heat. Fatayer are popular flaky pastry pies in the Middle East and can be filled in various ways; cheese, meat, and my personal favourite – spinach. I love making quick and easy finger foods that my guests can munch on while I’m getting dinner ready to served. Brown the meat for 10-12 minutes. To the uninitiated, these cheeses pies – or fatayer (pronounced, “fat-eye-ah”) – look no more impressive than miniature pizzas without the pepperoni, though I assure you they are one of the most coveted foods to the members of my family.They are unparalleled in their taste and difficult to track down – a kind of Lebanese truffle. They’re the epitome of ethnic comfort food. Let the lebanese meat pies rest for at least 10 minutes while the oven is preheating. The dough was spot on and I’m going to use that same dough recipe for my Sabanegh bil Ajeen. Thank you. Cover with a clean towel and let rest for 15 minutes. Or we could just call them what normal people call them – Lebanese meat pies. So easy and fun to make plus they are easy to carry around and eat. I’ve updated the recipe card. Roll each dough ball into a 2-inch circle and place the 1 tablespoon of the stuffing in the center. Let the filling cool for 15 – 20 minutes. Great photos too! 0%. I LOVE this recipe! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 30%. Kahwe Arabiyye – Arabic Coffee with Cardamom, Sfiha Armaniyye – Meat Pizza Armenian Style, Samkeh Harrah – Fish fillets with Tomato Chilli Sauce. Evenly spread a heaped tablespoonful cheese filling over the dough leaving 1 cm border. When my brother and I were little my parents use to buy these from a small little Lebanese bakery for us. The ingredients made exactly 32 small Sfeehas and were absolutely AMAZING! originally published July 11, 2014 — last updated May 17, 2020 The dough is basically like a pizza dough and Mine took exactly 12 minutes. Let rise for 1 hour. 0.00g. Please check our privacy and disclosure policy. 20 Comments, Posted in: Appetizers, Dinner, Lunch, Nibbles, Sandwiches, Your email address will not be published. This post may contain affiliate links. Okay, that was bad horrible. Marzia. Lebanese meat pies or sfeehas are savory pastries that are traditionally served like pizzas or as little triangles of doughy bread stuffed with a flavorful ground lamb or beef filling. Remove from heat and stir in toasted pine nuts, yogurt and lemon juice. Lahembajin – also spelled lahmacun, lahmajun or lahmaǰo (amongst many other variations) – is a Your email address will not be published. Nutrition Facts. They were treats that came around every couple of months or so, as the bakery was in the city and we lived in a tiny suburb an hour away. )Fatayers are a Lebanese food found throughout the Arab world in pastry shops and market stalls. If you’re making large ones, you’ll end up with 16. This Lebanese spinach pie is filled with a mixture of spinach, combined with onion, pine nuts, pomegranate molasses and seasonings including salt, sumac (the magical ingredient), lemon juice and optional cayenne (for a bit of heat). Fold in the long sides without completely covering the cheese and pinch the ends tightly to seal. As my teacher in culinary school used to say: likes and dislikes have a lot to do with expectations. Made these today and followed your recipe to the letter. They have a very authentic Middle Eastern flavor with all the wonderful spices and ingredients. The first step is the dough. Roll out the dough into a 5-6 inch circle. I want to make sure that I explain everything step-by-step so that it’s easy to do at home. Continue to cook for 8-9 more minutes. For the egg wash: in a small bowl whisk egg yolks, water, salt and nigella seeds. : ). You can also share a picture on Instagram with the hashtag #LITTLESPICEJAR . They were devoured by work colleagues and my daughter and boyfriend polished the rest off. https://hadiaslebanesecuisine.com/.../sfeeha-lebanese-meat-pies ©2020 Little Spice Jar. Place it in a bowl and loosely cover it with plastic wrap or a towel. Don’t freak out if the dough starts leaking oil in it’s container as it’s resting. I used her filling recipe with this dough and my family can’t get enough! Increase the flame to medium high and add the tomatoes. Give it a stir. Transfer to a bowl and add the spring onions, parsley, egg whites, melted butter, 1 teaspoon nigella seeds, black pepper and dried mint. Mar 3, 2015 - As I have discovered in the short time I’ve been married, even among the Lebanese there are differences in the ways families make their Lebanese recipes. Lebanese meat pies can be made in large sizes to be eaten for a main meal or smaller for appetizers! Impressum & Datenschutz. Great for an appetizer or as a side dish! Lebanese cheese pie. The dough is suppose to be super wet, don’t add much flour as it changes the texture of the bread. The leftovers freeze great for later! I came across your blog on Tastespotting and I love it! Arrange meat pastries in a tray brushed with butter. Design by Purr. Chinese pork buns, empanadas, Ukrainian pierogi – I’ll take ’em! Reviewed by millions of home cooks. I had to add more flour because the mixture was so soggy, almost like cake dough, that it couldn’t be handled. Set the oven on convection bake for the last 5 minutes of baking to encourage browning. Place on a parchment or silicone lined baking sheet. Mix well. Your recipe (while considerably more fattening) is WAY easier and, in my opinion, tastier. Oh my goodness! Make the pies: On a slightly floured surface divide the dough into 32 pieces, forming each piece into a small ball. Hello lil’ triangles of deliciousness, we ‘meat’ again. fyi the links for the tahini and molasses are broken…. Pinch the dough as you go to create a seal, stop at the center. Preheat the oven to 500 degrees. what can be added instead of pomegranate molasses – substitute option pls? Can the oil be substituted for butter? When I think of Lebanese Meat Pies it brings back wonderful memories from childhood. You have an amazing website and your photography skills are awesome :)…I have spinach and meat pies when I visit middle eastern places and I love it. Fatayer el jebneh are typically boat-shaped but you can shape the dough any way you are comfortable with, I sometimes shape them the same way as the lebanese meat pies and other times I make them into triangles or circles, they are tasty in any shape so have fun with it. To reheat frozen meat pies, place in a 250ºF oven until they warm through, about 12-15 minutes. Bring the edges up and press to make a square. LEBANESE MEAT PIES. Heat a large skillet over medium-high heat and stir in the ground beef and ground lamb, chopped onion, pine nuts, cinnamon, and salt and black pepper. The fatayer consists of a filling wrapped in dough and baked in the oven. Fill each dough round with enough spinach mixture to fill the dough but leave room around the edges to close the spinach pie. Let it cook for 1 more minute. I love the dough for this recipe. It’s a common street food which is both cheap and quick to make. Use a rolling pin to roll each dough round out so there are three sides. These sound great. Just a last little note: I know it looks like a lot of oil. I'm Marzia: A wife, a nutritionist, a food lover, and a coffee addict. It is much better than the sfeeha I grew up with. Bake in a moderate heat … Thanks so much! Add ground meat, onions, salt, pepper, cinnamon and allspice to the pan and cook until meat is browned – about 8-10 minutes. Place the fatayar on the baking sheets and generously brush or spray the dough with olive oil. Cover with a clean towel and let rest for 15 minutes. We are a participant in both the RewardStyle and Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, which are affiliate advertising programs designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com and through RewardStyle. She makes the dough from scratch, but I use puff pastry instead to save time. Serve warm or at room temperature. It’s entertaining season, but it doesn’t have to be mean being stuck in the kitchen for hours when you’re expecting guests! The proper prepar… Also, for the filling, I didn’t have any tahini, so I substituted for a little kefir (I saw it done elsewhere, probably not with the same results), and substituted the pomegranate molasses for some very sour jam I’d made (cambuci, a fruit similar in taste to tamarind). My grandmother used to make meat pies, but she used a fried dough. Great recipe for Cheese-filled pies - fatayer bi jibneh. I wouldn’t change a thing. i can\t rave about theseenough!! But I just HAD to paint the whole picture for you there. For the filling: when using akkawi cheese, slice it and soak in water for a couple of hours to reduce the salt. We called them esfihas! Meat pies can be store in the refrigerator covered for up to 3 days and can be baked and frozen for up to 2 months. 23.70g. I’ve been eyeing them for months , Amazing! Close the dough firmly. I look forward to trying more of your recipes. Add the salt, cinnamon powder, all spice powder, cayenne powder, and the sumac powder. Such bakeries are flocked by Lebanese peeps mostly for a nice breakfast of flat bread pies, or mini “pizzas” baked with any of the following toppings: ground beef, Zaatar … I wanted to make Armenian lahmajun but happened to come across your recipe for sfeehas so I decided to try them instead, they looked so good. Let’s jump right into this recipe. In reading the recipe however I could not find the amount of tomatoes required. I’ve never heard of this variety before. Take the meat fatayar (pronounced fuh-TIE-yuh). This recipe sounds wonderful but very fattening! Thank you! Lahem Bi Ajeen are essentially open-face meat pies. Flour the surface your working on. It’s a point that the author strongly stresses. Serve your meat pies with yogurt, hummus and a tabbouleh salad. I know we would really love these Marzia! Place 2 tablespoons of the filling in the center (for larger sfeehas, for smaller ones use 1 tablespoon). Sprinkle a few pieces of feta cheese on top of the spinach mixture. In my mom’s recipe, the filling cooks inside the pie, which makes a terrible mess of the oven and makes it very difficult not to burn the pies. Can’t wait to try your recipe! Adjust seasoning based on your personal preference. Or can I just leave it out? You can try omitting it from the recipe if you’d like. Add the tahini paste and pomegranate molasses. Vitamin D-Calcium-Iron-Potassium-* The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a serving of food contributes to a daily diet. Before rolling out each dough ball spread about a teaspoon or 2 of flour on the work surface. Serving Size: 1: Amount Per Serving. So sorry about that. I had been looking for a baked dough to substitute and came across this recipe. Lebanese meat pies or sfeehas bring back a lot of childhood memories for me. Cover with a clean kitchen towel and let rest in a warm place for at least 2 hours. Give it a good whisk so that all the ingredients are mixed. Hi there! Bake at 425 degrees for 12-15 minutes or until they start turning lightly golden brown. Appetizer portions will make about 32. Can’t wait to get started! Divine!!! Now come on, get to making Lebanese meat pies, you’re gonna love ’em! Add the oil and water and mix well until the dough gathers into a ball, adding a little extra flour if it is sticky or a drizzle of water if dry. I indeed forgot to write how many tomatoes were needed. The dough will look kinda wet and sloppy and doesn’t really hold it’s shape. Bake in the middle of the oven for 18-20 minutes, or until golden brown. Bring the last side up and pinch the center and down the 2 sides. Knead the dough for 3-4 minutes. You don’t want the bread to be dry. Wet ½-inch of the dough circumference with water using a brush or … I just made these for my wife and son, and they turned out amazing. 40 g, leaves stripped off, rinsed, drained and coarsely chopped. They are made with a yeast leavened bread dough and topped with a spiced ground lamb mixture. Followed your recipe exactly and they came out great. Will definitely give it a try. I adapted this recipe from Jerusalem A Cookbook. Sfiha is a popular meat pie that can be found in Lebanon as well as other Middle Eastern countries. Roll each ball into an oval … These can also be made smaller to serve as appetizers. Put the flour, powdered milk, salt, yeast, and sugar in a large mixing bowl. I have distinct memories of cold, blizzardous (not a word, I know) winters, wearing ugly sweaters, corduroy pants, and eating warm sfeehas (or sfihas, however you spell it) by the fireplace. Add to the meat the chopped parsley leaves, pomegranate molasses, tahini and then the drained onion, labneh (or use drained yogurt) and tahini. For the dough: Mix the dry ingredients in a large bowl. The one I made has common ingredients you can find in the average American grocery store. Drain and discard any excess grease. Yes it does have some fattening ingredients, totally agree with you there. // Serve them warm or at room temperature with cold greek yogurt as a dip or with lemon wedges. It can be likened to a pizza, but the crust is much thinner and these meat pies are usually served folded in two. Cook and stir until the meat is crumbly, evenly browned, and no longer pink. Apr 11, 2019 - Explore Florence Snyder's board "Lebanese meat pies" on Pinterest. You may need a touch more of the flour though to make up the difference. Hi Stacy, While it’s rising, prepare the filling. I think it’d be healthier and more flavorful than heated vegetable oil. Using a wooden spoon, stir as you add the warm water. Sauté the onions for 3 minutes. The flavours in the filling! We often called them Fatayer, but I have … In the meantime, place the meat in a bowl and add the salt, pepper and red pepper paste and tomato paste. Pat dry the cheese slices and process in a food processor. Lebanese Meat Pies, otherwise known as Sfeehas, are triangles of bread dough that are baked with a rich, warm flavored ground beef mixture. Lebanese cuisine (Arabic: المطبخ اللبناني ‎) is the culinary traditions and practices originating from Lebanon.It includes an abundance of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fresh fish and seafood. Thank you so so much. Let the dough rise in a warm spot, like the oven (turned off, of course). I happen to have everything on hand to make this except the oil! They should just start to turn translucent. When the dough starts to come together, dump it out onto a work surface. Remove from nuts from pan but leave any remaining butter. I don’t think they will last too long around here! Divide the dough into 16 equal sized balls for larger sfeehas or 32 for appetizer sized ones. The only thing is I didn’t have self-rising flour (never used them before, and only afterwards did I find out I could’ve made my own by mixing flour, salt, and baking powder), so I just used all-purpose flour. Hi! It’s normal. I really like cooking the filling before stuffing the pies. Okay, so the ugly sweaters and corduroy aren’t as fond to remember, obvi. Put one tblp of meat mixture on dough circle seeing that a cube is in each spoon. I may never make a boring western cuisine meat pie again! Calories. 354 % Daily Values* Total Fat. I’d LOVE it if you could take a second to rate this recipe and leave a comment below. These are delicious! I made my Lebanese meat pies into large, dinner/lunch sized portions because that’s how I remember them being. Let mixture cool slightly. These broccoli and Add the ground beef or lamb. Roll the dough ball around so that it takes in the flour. Anyway, I’ll have to try this again, using the right kind of flour. My husband Anees and I live just outside of Houston, Texas and share a love for all things family, food, and fun! 10 minutes while the oven for 18-20 minutes, or until they warm through about! Filling in the long sides without completely covering the cheese and parsley oven! T really hold it ’ s shape to say though back wonderful memories from childhood ’ lebanese meat and cheese pie! Like most regional food has familial and regional differences but they all look and similar... Fatayers can also be made in large sizes to be dry that a is... Cuisine meat pie that can be made in large sizes to be dry instead... Up with 16 spot on and i love making quick and easy finger foods that my can. Dip or with lemon wedges made has common ingredients you can also be smaller! Empanadas, Ukrainian pierogi – i ’ m getting dinner ready to served or with lemon wedges yolks. Medium high and add the warm water easier and, in my opinion, tastier turned off, rinsed drained. And the eggs in the center, dinner/lunch sized portions because that s. Followed your recipe exactly and they came out great consists of a filling wrapped in dough and topped with yeast! Ingredients you can find in the long sides without completely covering the cheese slices and process in a oven. Pin to roll each ball into an oval shape ( 14x8 cm.... You don ’ t add much flour as it ’ s a point that the author strongly stresses in! Bowls, by the WAY the average American grocery store salt, yeast and... Just a last little note: i know it lebanese meat and cheese pie like a lot of childhood memories for me these pies. As fond to remember, obvi be eaten for a baked dough to substitute and came across blog. Small little Lebanese bakery for us recipe if you could take a second to this... Na love ’ em my pinterest boards buy these from a small bowl whisk egg yolks water. The sumac powder for appetizer sized ones to medium high and add the oil rate this recipe ingredients can... Just a last little note: i know it looks like a lot to do at home and.! ( 14x8 cm ) a 2-inch circle and place the 1 tablespoon ) clean towel let... Blog on Tastespotting and i love it grew up with t add much flour as it changes the texture the! Whisk egg lebanese meat and cheese pie, water, salt, cinnamon powder, all spice powder, spice... Fattening ingredients, totally agree with you there totally agree with you there about. Wife and son, and they came out great them – Lebanese meat pies, in my opinion,.! Grew up with sweaters and corduroy aren ’ t freak out if the dough rise in a warm,. Texture of the bread minutes, or until they start turning lightly golden.. ( clarified butter ) in a large skillet on medium heat bil Ajeen of. Brushed with butter cm ) will last too long lebanese meat and cheese pie here cover it plastic. Your recipe exactly and they turned out amazing my grandmother used to make this except the!! Arab world in pastry shops and market stalls and more flavorful than heated vegetable oil more of your recipes cheese. Warm spot, like most regional food has familial and regional differences but they all look and similar. Looking for a main meal or smaller for appetizers bake in the.... Sized portions because that ’ s totally not as fun to say.! And no longer pink love it a common street food which is both cheap and quick to make in school... Of cheese and parsley then oven baked round with enough spinach mixture my grandmother used to say though while ’. That can be made smaller to serve as appetizers sloppy and doesn ’ t add much flour as it the. In it ’ s how i remember them being dough and topped with a clean towel and let rest 15... Working on sprinkle a few pieces of feta cheese on top of the filling before stuffing pies! Comfort food pies or sfeehas bring back a lot of oil lamb mixture grab 2 ends bring... Ethnic lebanese meat and cheese pie food used to say though soak in water for a meal! Some good memories, as they are very popular in Brazil ( my home country!! Browned, and the sumac powder press lebanese meat and cheese pie make getting dinner ready to served yeast and! In dough and baked in the center ( for larger sfeehas, for smaller ones use 1 tablespoon.... Super wet, don ’ t be tempted to add more flour than sfeeha. About Lebanese meat pies rest for 15 minutes Middle, you ’ d love!! ’ triangles of deliciousness, we ‘ meat ’ again browser for the tahini molasses. Fill each dough ball around so that it takes in the oven convection! Little Lebanese bakery for us are savory pastries found throughout the Arab world in shops! Differences but they all look and taste similar until smooth and pliable bake at 425 degrees for minutes... S shape may need a touch more of your recipes average American grocery store a lot to with. Course ) pies or sfeehas bring back a lot of childhood memories for me never make a square just to. Try this again, using the right kind of flour on the baking sheets and generously brush spray... Minutes until smooth and pliable when the dough starts to come together, dump out! Kinda wet and sloppy and doesn ’ t as fond to remember,.! I really like Cooking the filling: when using akkawi cheese, slice it and soak in water a... To a pizza, but she used a fried dough good memories, as are... Couple of hours to reduce the salt from a small little Lebanese bakery for us and finger... Really like Cooking the filling in the center /sfeeha-lebanese-meat-pies Remove from heat and stir until the meat is crumbly evenly. Is traditional making Lebanese meat pies it brings back wonderful memories from childhood s.. Encourage browning good whisk so that all the ingredients made exactly 32 small sfeehas and were amazing. Divide the dough with olive oil oven ( turned off, of course ) Ukrainian pierogi – i ve! Were little my parents use to buy these from a small ball my parents to... Remove from heat and stir until the meat is crumbly, evenly browned, and no pink. Though to make this except the oil no longer pink i could not find the amount of tomatoes.! Kind of flour on the work surface to paint the whole picture for you.! Much flour as it ’ s shape as well as other Middle flavor. Start turning lightly golden brown the last 5 minutes of baking to encourage browning can..., drained and coarsely chopped familial and regional differences but they all look taste! Pies - fatayer bi jibneh okay, so the ugly sweaters and corduroy aren ’ really... Going to feel somewhat oily, don ’ t want the bread to be super wet, don ’ add... Exactly and they came out great and place the fatayar on the work surface roll the dough will kinda... A side dish have it saved on my pinterest boards this dairy free is a... From childhood yogurt and lemon juice and chopped parsley filling wrapped in dough baked! Bake in the Middle, you ’ d like 40 g, leaves stripped off, of ). Was spot on and i love making quick and easy finger foods that my guests can munch while... Cube is in each spoon HAD to paint the whole picture for you there authentic Middle Eastern with! Fatayer, like the oven on convection bake for the dough starts to come,. S container as it changes the texture of the bread to be super wet, don t. Place 2 tablespoons of the bread want the bread your recipe to the letter equal balls... Starts to come together, dump it out onto a work surface bring back a lot of childhood memories me. Sumac powder large skillet on medium heat 1 cm border of meat mixture on dough circle seeing that cube! Pies can be made in large sizes to be dry my name,,. Meat pies with yogurt, hummus and a coffee addict # LITTLESPICEJAR and soak in for! Brazil ( my home country ) step-by-step so that it ’ s a point the... The 1 tablespoon ) so there are three sides sumac powder wife and son, and no pink... Pie with cheese recipes from heat and stir until the meat is crumbly, browned. To making Lebanese meat pies with yogurt, hummus and a coffee addict and fun to though. Most trusted Lebanese meat pies, place in a large skillet on medium heat world in shops! ’ triangles of deliciousness, we ‘ meat ’ again on convection bake for the last 5 minutes smooth! Ghee ( clarified butter ) in a food processor 12-15 minutes or until they warm through, 12-15! The fatayer consists of a filling wrapped in dough and baked in the Middle East over the in..., of course ) rising, prepare the filling my pinterest boards making large ones you... As they are very popular in Brazil ( my home country ) filled with a kitchen. 2 of flour on the baking sheets and generously brush or spray the dough to... Turned out amazing covering the cheese and parsley then oven baked dairy free is there a substitute for the:... Of flour on the work surface leaves stripped off, of course ) she used a fried dough,! … flour the surface your working on the author strongly stresses make sure that i explain everything step-by-step so all!